International Journal of Astronomy, Space Sciences and Cosmology | Volume 1, Issue -1 | Short Communication | Open Access

Rodney Bartlett^{*}

Unaffiliated with Institution, Lives in Australia, Member of Research Gate and ORCID, Certificates in Astrophysics from ANU (Australian National University), Certificates in Robotics from QUT (Queensland University of Technology, Australia)

^{*}Correspondence to: Rodney Bartlett ^{}

Fulltext PDF## Abstract

The following article proposes that black holes are formed by the quantum pressure of interacting gravitons and photons. This pressure would not magically stop at the event horizon but would naturally affect the environment of the black holes.
Added to the quantum nature of photons and gravitons is the simplified diagram below of this article's vector-tensorscalar (VTS) geometry describing the two particles' interaction. Since the geometry was inspired by a paper Albert Einstein published in 1919, it would - if correct - be a step towards quantum gravity, the ongoing quest to link Einstein’s general relativity with quantum mechanics. Similarly with Einstein's 1919 attempt to explain the atom in terms of electromagnetism and gravitation, this article outlines how the Higgs boson and the two nuclear forces arise through interaction of electromagnetism and gravitation. In the case of the weak and strong nuclear forces, it's thus suggesting a different approach to the electroweak interaction (one approach won the No bel Prize for Physics in
1979).[1]
Interaction of the gravitons and photons within a black hole produces a pressure we identify as mass. Since this pressure extends into the black hole's environment, the black hole is losing mass, as Stephen Hawking's idea of "Hawking radiation" tells us (radiation of a thermal nature - heat - implies that electromagnetism's photons are
present). As will be seen, the term "diagonal" in VTS Geometry can be replaced with the term “quaternion". And the counter clock wise rotation of the (horizontal) x-and (vertical) y-axes in Wick Rotation can be viewed as either rotation into diagonal form or as a quaternion function. This permits another view of dark matter and dark energy to be explored
in the text.

## Keywords:

Black Holes; Dark Matter; Dark energy; General Relativity; Vector-Tensor-Scalar Geometry

## Citation:

Rodney Bartlett (2021) How the Higgs boson and Two Nuclear Forces Relate to the Quantum Pressure and Hawking Radiation of Black Holes As Well As Dark Matter and Dark energy. Int Ast Spa Cos Jour 1(1):1-5